фразовые глаголы_33764


Фразовые глаголы

Phrasal verbs

В данном пособии представлены наиболее употребимые фразовые глаголы (комментарии к правилам употребления,тренировочные упражнения,проверочные тесты).

Женетль Гошнагу Теучежевна

Учитель английского языка, МБОУ СОШ N52, г.Краснодар

14.05.2012

Фразовые глаголы.

Как известно, для английского языка характерно широкое использование так называемых фразовых глаголов, т.е. глаголов, смысл которых в значительной степени меняется от зависимости от того, с каким послелогами (наречиями, частицами или предлогами) они употребляются ( ср. get along with sb- ладить, уживаться с кем-либо, get around sb- добиться желаемого с помощью хитрости или лести) .Ядерное звено большинства фразовых глаголов составляют такие употребительные слова как get, come, run,hold и т.п. и такие распространенные послелоги как in, out, of, on и т.п. О значении фразовых глагол можно догадаться далеко не во всех случаях, т.к. зачастую они сильно отличаются от значений исходных глаголов ( ср. run- бежать; run out of sth- кончиться, если речь идет о деньгах, продуктах и пр.). Из-за того, что значения фразовых глаголов далеко не всегда очевидны, при обучении языку на них нужно обращать особое внимание.

Away –убежать, поспешно уйти

Down – сломать(ся)

To breakinto — а)внезапно начинать что-то; б)вломится

Out — разразиться

off

Break in; break into something

Study Read these sentences carefully.

Get a strong front door lock – otherwise anybody could break in.

Thieves broken in by smashing a window.

Then I was that somebody had broken into my car and stolen the radio.

The hut has been empty for a while and children have been breaking into it.

My car has been broken into six time.

Check Use the sentences in the Study box to help you do these exercises.

MEANING

Choose the correct words to complete the meaning of break in: to enter a building or vehicle Legally/illegally by breaking a door or window/using a key

GRAMMAR

Only four of these sentences are possible. Which ones?

a) It’s hard for anyone to break in.

b) They must have broken in during the night.

c) They broken in the bank during the night.

d) They broken in through the door. e) They broken in into during the night.

f) The bank had been broken into during the night.

Practise

Match the two halves to make complete sentences.

I never thought anyone would I)been broken into, and I hope it never will.

He was caught on CCTV II)ever be able to break in.

My flat has never III)breaking into a parked car.

He’d used a hammer IV)to break in through the window.

Apparently, he had actually V)broken into his own house.

Why might someone need to break into their own home?

Why are ground-floor apartments sometimes considered to be more dangerous than upstairs ones? Use break in or break into something in your answer.

Build your vocabulary

RELATED WORDS

NOUN: a `break-in (This is a countable noun.)

Police reported a rise in the number of break-ins over the last 12 months.

IDIOMS

Breaking and entering is the crime of entering a building by force, especially to steal something:

He was found guilty of breaking and entering and sentenced to six months in prison.

Break up

Study Read these sentences carefully.

It’s always hard when a marriage breaks up, especially if there are children.

After three albums, the band broke up in order to have solo careers.

He’s just broken up with his girlfriend.

`Why are you crying?` `Chris thinks we should break up.`

Check Use the sentences in the Study box to help you do these exercise.

MEANINGGRAMMAR

Complete the meanings with a word or phrase from the brackets:

a)If a relationship breaks up, it ……….

(is unhappy/ comes to an and)

b)if people break up, they…………( end a relationship/ get divorced)

Which of these are grammatically possible?

a) They broke up.

b) He broken up.

c) He broken up with her .d)the marriage broken up.

Practise

Complete the sentences with one of the subjects below, using each subject only once.

her marriage they many bands families she

a)……………………………. broke up in1985, leaving her to raise two children on her own.

b)…………………………….break up because of personality clashes between members.

c) Pat was very depressed after ……………………. broke up with John.

d) the project will focus on why ……………………. break up and how this can be avoided.

e) They were together for four years, but then a year ago ………………………broke up.

Answer the following question in two ways, using break up.

Are Mark and Liz still together?

No,

Yes,

Build your vocabulary

RELATED WORDS

NOUN: a `break-up` (This noun is usually countable.)

He moved away after the break-up of his marriage.

Family break-ups are stressful and difficult.

SYNONYMS

Split up means the same as break up and is used in the same way.

Break down

Study Read these sentences carefully.

Why are you late? Did the bus break down?

What a terrible journey! We broke down twice on the way home.

I’m nervous about using the washing machine in case it breaks down again.

Check Use the sentences in the Study box to help you do these exercises.

MEANING GRAMMAR

Break down means’ to stop Working because of a fault`. What type of things can break down? Choose two of the following:

a)tools.

b)machines.

c)vehicles

Which of these are grammatically possible?

a) we broken down.

b) We broke down the car.

c)The car broke down. d)The car broke itself down.

Practise

1)Break or break down? Use the answers to the answer to the MEANING exercise to help you choose the best alternative.

Can I borrow your pen? Mine’s broken/ broken down.

If the air conditioning system breaks/ breaks down, call the engineer.

I tried to cut some very thick paper and scissors broke/ broke down.

‘My new phone’s broke/ broke down.’ ‘Did you drop it again?’

2)Answer the following questions, using the verb break down.

Why are you washing your clothes by hand?

Because

Is your car reliable?

Yes,

Build your vocabulary

RELATED WORDS

NOUN: a `breakdown

We had a breakdown on the way home

ADJECTIVE: broken-down (This is usually used before a noun.)

A broken-down truck

These words are usually used about vehicles.

SIMILAR VERBS

If a computer or a computer system stops working suddenly, we can say it crashes.

Go down is also used about a computer system. This verb is in Really Learn 100 More Phrasal Verbs.

If part of a machine or vehicle goes wrong, it stops working correctly:

My watch has gone wrong.

Break out; break out of something

Study Read these sentences carefully.

Six prisoners tried to break out but were recaptured.

Two dangerous robbers had broken out of jail.

She wanted to break out of her boring life and do something exciting.

Check Use the sentences in the Study box to help you do these exercises.

MEANING GRAMMAR GRAMMAR

If you break out, what do you do? Choose the best meaning.

a)you escape from a place or situation.

b)you hurt yourself.

c)you get a new job

There is a grammatical mistake in one of these sentences. Can you find it and correct it?

He broken out of jail.

He has broken out of jail.

He will break out of jail.

He broke out the jail.

Practise

Replace the underlined verbs in the following sentences with an appropriate from of break out.

He tried to get out of the room that he was locked in.

Five prisoners have escaped from the jail already this year.

He desperately wanted to get away from his loveless marriage.

Look at the lock. Nobody broke into this room, but somebody got out.

Imagine you are a prison governor. Think about what changes you would make to stop prisoners wanting to escape. Write two or three sentences about it using a from of break out.

Build your vocabulary

RELATED WORDS

NOUN: ‘breakout’ (this is a countable noun.)

The governor resigned after several prison breakouts.

OPPOSITES

Break in, break into something

This verb is in Really Learn 100 Phrasal Verbs.

OTHER MEANINGS

Break something out means ‘to get something ready to be used’;

Let’s break out the food and drink and have fun!

Break off

Study Read these sentences carefully.

The government broke off diplomatic relations with the country.

My girlfriend decided to break our relationship off.

He was engaged to Judy but she broke it of after a few months. Talks between union and management were broken off last night.

Check Use the sentences in the Study box to help you do these exercises.

MEANING

Which of these verbs most closely match this meaning of break something off?

To discuss

To start

To end

GRAMMAR

Which of these are grammatically possible?

They broke off the talks.



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