учебно методическое пособие на английском языке Знаменитые композиторы

Данное учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с Государственными требованиями к минимуму содержания и уровню подготовки выпускников учебных заведений среднего и профессионального образования.

Пособие включает сборник рассказов о композиторах 18-20 в.в., ориентированных на повышение образовательного и культурного уровня личности студента. Работа над текстами способствует развитию умения участвовать в несложной беседе на темы профессионального характера, выражать свои мысли в устной форме, используя усвоенные грамматические правила. При работе над материалом пособия используюся следующие формы – чтение текстов, связанных с профессиональной деятельностью студента; вопросы к тексту позволяют выявить понимание прочитанного; нахождение английских эквивалентов к русским предложениям позволяет закрепить лексику; составление устного монологического высказывания и дискуссия способствуют обобщению полученных знаний о композиторе.

Итоговый дискуссионный урок предполагает развитие умения рассказать о любимом композиторе,используя предложенные слова и словосочетания; выделить черты, свойственные творчеству того или иного композитора.

В конце пособия представлен словарь профессиональных терминов, цель которого оказать помощь в чтении нот, усвоение терминов поможет точнее выражать мысли на инструменте и в работе в музыкальных коллективах и оркестрах, во главе которых находятся зарубежные дирижеры.

Данное учебное пособие способствует реализации образовательных и воспитательных задач обучения.

FAMOUS COMPOSERS

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750)

Bach was born in 1685. He was a German organist and composer of the baroque era. In 1700 Bach began to earn his own living as a chorister at the church of St.Michael in Luneburg at around age 5. In 1703, he became a violinist in the chamber orchestra (камерный оркестр) of Prince Johann Ernst of Weimar, but later that year he moved to Arnstadt, where he became church organist. In October 1705, Bach begann to study with the renowned (известный) Danish-born German organist and composer Dietrich Buxtehude.

In 1707 Bach married his second cousin, Maria Barbara Bach, and went to Mulhausen as organist in the Church of St.Blasius. He went back to Weimar, remained there for the next 9 year, becoming concertmaster of the court orchestra in 1714 (придворный оркестр). Bach moved to Leipzig in 1723 and spent the rest of his life there. He found his job as musical director and choirmaster of St.Thomas’s church and church school in Leipzig.

He died on July 28, 1750, after undergoing an unsuccessful eye operation.

Bach was remembered as a virtuous organist rather than a composer of great skill and importance. Bach was self-taught (самоучка) in musical composition. Bach’s music is significant because of the high level of intellect in his compositions. His music is a fine mixture of technical dexterity and beautiful melodies. This is why his music is so popular today.

QUESTIONS

Who was Bach?

Where did he work?

Where did he spend the rest of his life?

4. Who was his wife?

5. Why is his music popular?

FIND ENGLISCH EQUIVALENTS

Он стал скрипачем в камерном оркестре.

Он стал заниматься у известного органиста и композитора.

Он вернулся в Веймар.

Остаток своей жизни он провел в Лейпциге.

DISCUSSION

Do you like choral singing?

Have you ever heard church music? What you can say about it?

Do you like to listen Bach? Why?

RETELL THE TEXT

G. HANDEL (1685-1759)

Handel was a German-born composer. Handel’s most important works are Operas and Oratorios composed for the theatre. The most famous of these is Messiah, which was first performed in 1742.

He was born in Halle. He begann to study music in 1692 with F.Zachow, a church organist in Halle. At age 17 Handel became Organist at Halle’s main church, the Dornkirche. In 1703 he moved to Hamburg, an important centre for opera in Germany. At first he played violin in Hamburg’s Opera orchestra. In 1706 Handel departed for Italy, the birthplace of opera, and spent the next 4 years in Rome, Naples, Venice. During this time he composed a large number of cantatas and Italian oratorios. In 1710 he returned to Germany and became court composer for the elector of Hannover.

After a few months Handel left for London, where in 1711 his first Italian opera for the English stage, Rinaldo, was enthusiastically received. During the 1720s and 1730s Handel worked as a composer of operas for the London stage. In 1732 he concentrated on oratorios in English. His oratorios differ from the operas in a number of respects. Unlike operas, oratorios are performed in concert, without costumes, scenery, staging and are less expencive to produce. The arias in Handel’s oratorios are generally simpler and less florid than those in his operas. The most famous of Handel’s oratorios is Messiah, which has remained part of the repertoire from Handel’s time until our own. Some of his best instrumental works were written to be played with the oratorios. In 1751 Handel began to lose his eyesight.

Handel died in his home in 1759 and was buried in Westminster Abbey in London.

QUESTIONS

Who was Handel?

Who was his teacher?

What did Handel compose?

How are oratorios performed?

What oratorio is the most famos?

DISCUSSION

Is Handel popular as a composer?

What can you say about his operas?

RETELL THE TEXT

WOLFGANG MOZART (1756-1791)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is one of the greatest composers ever born. In every form, from serenade to fugue, from piano concerto and symphony to the heights of grand opera,his music amazes, enchants and invades ( овладевать) the memory.

Mozart was born in 1756 in Salzburg, Austria. He began playing the piano at 4, and when he was 5 years old, he already composed serious music. His father took him on tours of Western Europe and Italy and the boy was always a success.

Then the prodigy (вундеркинд) ripened into genius. The genius conquered Vienna and the world. Mozart’s fame was great. He met all the great figures of his time, from Haydn to Goethe. But then he suddenly fell from favour. The Vienna aristocracy grew tired of him. He lost pupils and contracts, had to move from his comfortable house in the centre to a modest flat in the suburbs. The genius was forgotten.

Mozart died in 1791, when he was only 35 years old. There’s a legend that Mozart was poisoned by his rival (соперник) composer Antonio Salieri. There is no truth in his legend, though it inspired many great poets, writers and composers. But it has been proved that in the last months of his life Mozart really believed that he was pursued (преследовать) by a spirit (дух),who appeared and ordered him to write a requiem. In a state of depression Mozart imagined that he was to write the requiem for himself.

His works include 41 symphonies, nearly 30 piano concertos, 19 operas, a vast quantity (огромное количество) of orchestral and other instrumental music, and volumes of church music (he wrote it mostly for financial reasons). His most famous operas are Don Giovanny, The Magic Flute and The Marriage of Figaro.

QUESTIONS

When did Mozart begin playing the piano?

Was Mozart’s fame long?

How did he spend the last years of his short life?

Was Mozart poisoned?

What made he write his famous requiem?

FIND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

Мальчик везде имел успех.

Гений завоевал Вену и мир.

Но неожиданно он впал в немилость.

Гений был забыт.

Моцарт представлял, что пишет реквием себе.

DISCUSSION

Have you read Pushkin’s Mozart and Salieri? Do you remember the end of this “little tragedy”?

Have you heard Rimsky-Кorsakov’s opera Mozart and Salieri?

What kind of music did Mozart write?

What do you think of Mozart’s music?

RETELL THE TEXT

LUDVIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Ludvig van Beethoven is considered one of the greatest composers who ever lived. He was born in 1770 in Bonn, Germany, the son and grandson of court musicians. His father taught him piano and violin — hoping that he would earn money. Beethoven’s instruction was poor until he was able to study under court organist Christian Gottlob Neefe, who drilled him in the music of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach. Neefe helped the young composer publish his first compositions.

In 1792 he settled in Vienna. Devoting himself more and more to composing, Beethoven made fewer appearances as a pianist. From 1801 his hearing grew steadily worse. Proud and independent, Beethoven tried to hide his affliction from society, withdrawing into isolation and devoting himself to his work. In his last years he was completely deaf. Several love affairs ended unhappily. But he concentrated on his music. He affirmed to the whole world

his independence as a free composer, in contrast with others who were supported by rulers. He was opening up what he called a “new path”, a more expressive and dramatic musical language, richer in emotion and deeper in thought than the other music of his time. He wrote symphonies, the opera Fidelio, the “Appassionata” Sonata in F Minor, the Violin Concerto, and the “Emperor” Piano Concerto. His last string quartets suggest a profound mood of acceptance, a triumphal peace over his sufferings.

QUESTIONS

What Beethoven’s masterpieces do you know?

Who was his teacher?

What happened with Beethoven when he was 32?

What can you say about his music?

FIND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

Он помог юному композитору опубликовать первые сочинения.

Он все меньше появлялся в качестве пианиста.

В последние годы он полностью оглох.

DISCUSSION

No physical defects can make a talented person give up creating, can they? Give your arguments

Have you ever heard Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata?

Why is his Ninth Symphony so popular?

RETELL THE TEXT

PYOTR TCHAIKOVSKY (1840-1893)

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk in 1840. He was found of music since his early childhood. His mother sang him beautiful songs and taught him to play the piano.

But Pyotr Ilyich graduated from the Petersburg Conservatoire only in 1866 because of his poor living conditions. He was the best pupil of Anton Rubinshtein. When the Moscow Conservatoire was founded Pyotr Ilyich became a professor there. He created wonderful music: 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large symphonic poems and many other musical pieces. “Eugene Onegin”, a new type of opera, was a great success all over the world. His “Swan Lake”, “The Nutcracker”, “The Sleeping Beauty” are musical masterpieces. Besides, Tchaikovsky was a great conductor, he conducted a lot of operas and symphonies himself.

In his music he used folk melodies for the musical descriptions of Russian nature and life. Tchaikovsky became the first Russian doctor of music abroad. He came back from Cambridge famous all over the world. Tchaikovsky’s compositions are full of realism. Though he wrote his operas and ballets in the 19th century they are real to us now.

He died in 1893, but his music continues to live, it will live forever. His music is played by the musician of all countries and continents. In 1958 at the 1th International festival named after Tchaikovsky an American pianist Van Clibarn won the 1st prize, brilliantly performing the 1st concert for the piano and orchestra by Tchaikovsky.

QUESTIONS

What operas by Tchaikovsky do you know?

Whose play did Tchaikovsky use for his ‘Romeo and Juliet overture”?

Was he a conductor too?

What did he use in his music?

Is his music real to us now? Why?

FIND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

Чайковский — выдающийся русский композитор.

Он был лучшим учеником Рубинштейна.

В своей музыке он использовал народные мелодии.

Он был великим дирижером.

DISCUSSION

He was a very talented composer, wasn’t he? Why?

Is he your favourite Russian composer?

Have you heard his opera?

Did he reflect his love for the nature of his country?

RETELL THE TEXT

S. PROKOFIEV (1891-1953)

He was born in 1891. S.Prokofiev composed his first piece of musik when he was 5.

He entered the St.Petersburg Conservatoire at the age of 13, he brought to his entrance examination 4 operas, a symphony and a number of piano pieces.

After the October Revolution Prokofiev emigrated to America. However he soon realized that it had been a bitter mistake.

But living abroad Prokofiev remained Russian, a citizen of his country. At the height of his fame Prokofiev still felt unhappy, homesick (тоска по дому) and lonely, living far from his native land. He missed Russia and kept thinking about going back. He believed that a composer who had lost his roots (корни) and musical traditions of his nation would lose the desire to compose and to create. It was only his motherland that could give him spiritual strength and be a pure source of inspiration (вдохновение).

Between 1927 and 1932 Prokofiev took several trips to the Soviet Union. His concerts in Moscow and Leningrad aroused (вызывать) great interest among the music lovers. People listened to his music in complete silence. During these concerts Prokofiev felt that he was listened to by his compatriots. When he came to Russia in 1927 he wrote:”I have to live in the atmosphere of my homeland. I have to see Russian winter and its changeable spring. I have to hear the Russian language and talk to people who are my people so that they give me back something I lack here-their songs, my songs. Yes, I am going back!”

In 1932 after his return to the Soviet Union, Prokofiev devoted all his inspiration to his people. For 20 years until he died in 1953 he served his country. In his new compositions he strove for clarity (strive- стремиться). His invaluable heritage includes 8 operas, 7 cantatas, 7 ballets, 7 symphonies as well as numerous piano pieces. Among them there are, such masterpieces as the opera “War and Piece”, the ballet “Romeo and Juliet”, the cantata “Alexander Nevsky”.

QUESTIONS

What music education did Prokofiev get?

How did it happen that he left Russia?

What was his attitude towarda Russia?

What operas by Prokofiev do you know?

Do you like his pieces? Why?

FIND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

После Октябрьской революции он эмигрировал в Америку.

В зените своей славы он чувствовал себя несчастным.

Он предпринял несколько путешествий в Советский Союз.

Люди слушали его музыку в полной тишине.

DISCUSSION

Prokofiev could find inspiration to write music only in his native land, couldn’t he?

Did he really love Russia? Have you heard any pieces of his music?

Why do many composers take ideas for their compositions from folk music? Give your arguments.

RETELL THE TEXT

BENJAMIN BRITTEN (1913-1976)

B.Britten was an outstanding English composer of our time. He was born in England in 1913. He was a remarkable child. At the age of 5 he began to compose. Soon it became evident enough that his musical gifts would have to be taken very seriously indeed. His earliest compositions were inspired by his daily adventures. Everything from a storm as sea to a storm in the family teacup, was grist to his mill. For the youthful Britten it was a normal thing to express himself in music as in ordinary every day speech. By the time he was 14 he had written 10 sonates,6 string quartets and oratoria, and a number of songs and piano pieces. His “Simple Symphony” though written in 1934, is based on ideas from the music of his childhood.

His career as a professional composer began in earnest in 1934. He began to produce the works that were to bring him the first taste of fame. He got a reputation as a composer of serious intent (намерения). He wrote charming and effective music, many works for children. A book of songs “Friday Afternoon”, his children’s opera “Let’s make an opera” are simple and very nice.

Britten followed the musical traditions of realism. Two of his most important compositions are the opera “Peter Grimes” and the “War Requiem”. Britten often appeared as conductor and pianist in England and abroad. He often came to Russia.

QUESTIONS

Where was Britten born?

When did he begin to compose?

By what were his compositions inspired?

What Britten’s masterpieces do you know?

Did he write for children?

FIND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS

Скоро стало очевидно, что его музыкальное дарование необходимо серьезно воспринимать.

Для него нормальным считалось выражать себя в музыке.

Она базируется на музыке его детства.

У него была репутация композитора серьезных намерений.

Он продолжал традиции реализма.

DISCUSSION

He wrote many works for children. What can you say about it?

Tell about his childhood.

Was he only composer?

RETELL THE TEXT

Discussion to topic “Famous composers”

Tell about your favourite composer, using following words and wordscombinations:

well-known, professional, great, famous, best-known, popular

to like, to be fond of, to adore

a musician, a composer

an opera, a composition, a ballet, a cantata, a piano, piece, a concert

musical traditions of, to have inspiration

to compose, to write music, to create, to listen to, to write down musical ideas, to inspire, to introduce

2. CHOICE SEPARATE LINES OF EVERY COMPOSER

3.STUDY THE FOLLOWING ARGUMENTS AND DEVELOP THE IDEAS

FOR

classical music gives the listeners a keen sensual delight and pleasure,

classical music has a deep intellectual appeal,

classical music makes the listener better and more human,

classical music condemns evil and supports the ideas of good,

classical music creates a special spiritual world for the listener which immensly enriches his inner life and makes him happy,

AGAINST

classical music a complicated art,

most people don’t like or understand it,

the very length of most classical music pieces can send any listener to sleep,

people want the kind of music to, which they can dance or just talk to friends.

VOCABULARY

accompaniment аккомпанимент

alto альт

abrupt резко

acceleration ускорение

accent подчеркивать

acute пронзительный

adagio медленно

agitation волнение

all in the same key однообразно

airly легко

an ear for music муз.слух

animate живо

anxiously с тревогой

attune настраивать

always marked подчеркивая

as near the bridge as possible играть близко к подставке, как только возможно

at the rim of the head играть по краю мембраны

ballade баллада

bass бас

basson фагот

baton дириж.палочка

bottom нижняя дека стр.инструментов

with the bow tip играть концом смычка

bow смычок

beat удар

blow играть на дух.инструментах

brass band дух.оркестр

brass winds медные дух.инструм.



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